Glucosamine is a natural substance found in every organism, and it helps in the formation of cartilage in the joints (chondroprotective). Cartilage is represented by scaly substances that possess the flexibility to act as a cushion between the bones.
Over time, the dog ages and the body’s production of many natural substances, including glucosamine, decreases. As a result, the joints become less elastic, harden and become more loaded with the skeleton of the dog when walking, since they are the ones that absorb energy when moving.
Cartilage wears out and breaks down; this process is called degeneration. The dog finds it harder to recover from various types of injuries. Therefore, glucosamine as a supplement is introduced into the dog’s diet, so the dog remains mobile for as long as possible.
Where Does Glucosamine Come From?
Natural sources of glucosamine are found in parts of the bones and cartilage of other animals, such as pigtails, bones and ligaments of the bovine joint, beef tails, shark cartilage, and green-lipped shell (Perna Canaliculus). However, the original source of most glucosamine supplements given to dogs in food or as a treat are wild-caught mussels.
The way glucosamine works in the body has not been fully explained, but it is known that artificial dietary supplements in the form of glucosamine delay its degeneration by increasing the production of glycosaminoglycans. Glycosaminoglycan is one of the basic building blocks of healthy cartilage tissue.1J. Henriques. The Best Sources of Glucosamine for Dogs. Dogs Naturally Magazine. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
Benefits of Glucosamine
Glucosamine has shown many positive aspects in the treatment of arthritis, osteoarthritis, hip dysplasia and pain relief. Probiotics are added to glucosamine in supplements on the market for easier digestion, as well as omega-3 fatty acids, which are usually derived from fish oil and vitamins A, C and D3.
The benefits of taking glucosamine include the following:
- Reducing inflammation: Inflammation can cause pressure and pain in parts of the dog’s body that are most burdened by carrying weight. These are the shoulders and hips. Glucosamine naturally has an anti-inflammatory effect in such chronic arthritis.
- Building cartilage in joints: Cartilage is the spongy tissue attached to the ends of the bone in the joint, and it maintains cushioning by absorbing the pressure made up of bone movements. Cartilage cells are chondrocytes and chondroblasts. As we age, the number of reproductions of these cells decreases, and the addition of glucosamine to the dog’s diet prolongs its life.
- Boosting mobility: It’s very important to keep the joints healthy, as well as to reduce the pain in them, because the healthier the dog’s joints, the more free he will be to move and the easier it will be to get up, lie down and run.
- Improving performance: Owners of service, military, therapeutic, racing, competition dogs or dogs responsible for saving lives try to improve the performance of their dogs by including glucosamine in their daily meals.
- Speeding up recovery after joint surgery: If the dog has failed to restore joint function with home care and alternative treatment, surgery is needed. In this case, the dog needs all possible help to recover as soon as possible. A vet will usually prescribe medication for a dog’s postoperative acute pain; however, you as the owner can help your pet by including glucosamine supplements in his diet to help the connective tissue repair as soon as possible.
- Possible alternative to NSAIDs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory antibiotics, i.e., anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most often prescribed in cases of arthritis and surgical procedures on cartilage tissue. However, it is known that a number of side effects can occur during or after the use of these drugs. Their disadvantage is that by relieving the pain, they don’t actually help the cartilage tissue to regenerate at all, so preparations containing glucosamine are ideal for a suitable combined action. In this way, a lower dose of both types of drugs can achieve a stronger therapeutic effect during recovery.
Types of Glucosamine for Dogs
Most of the supplements used in dog food are produced from chitin found in crab shells. Chitin is a long-chain polymer N-acetylglucosamine, which means that it is a complex carbohydrate of high molecular weight. The main role of chitin is to give flexibility and softness to the armor of insects and crabs, which also works on dogs’ cartilage.
Glucosamine can most commonly be found in the form of glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride (HCL), N-acetyl-glucosamine or MSM glucosamine, glucosamine chondroitin, glucosamine chondroitin sulfate, and glucosamine chondroitin MSM. Given to a dog in any of these forms, due to its small and simple molecules that penetrate directly into the cartilage, glucosamine is 98% absorbed into the joint tissue.
Glucosamine Sulfate for Dogs
Glucosamine sulfate is the most commonly used form of glucosamine. The largest number of studies on this form of glucosamine have been conducted in establishing its role and importance in dietary supplements. As the name suggests, it’s made of sulfur and glucosamine.
While glucosamine supplies the joints with cells needed for recovery from osteoarthritis and wound healing, sulfur has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The advantage of this form of glucosamine is that it is absorbed very quickly and does not burden the stomach.
Glucosamine sulfate is a form of glucosamine that occurs as stabilized with various types of salts, most commonly with sodium chloride (NaCl) or with potassium chloride (KCl). The NaCl form of glucosamine is not recommended for use in dogs with slightly higher blood pressure, because salt alone causes an additional increase in blood pressure.
Also, glucosamine sulfate, as well as hydrochloride, are very often combined in supplements with other additives, such as turmeric, MSM, or green-lipped mussels in glucosamine treats for dogs. These food supplements are produced mostly with the addition or just the taste of chicken to make it as attractive as possible to the dog so they are happy to eat them. The toxicity of glucosamine sulfate in the case of higher doses was not noticed.
It has been scientifically proven that long-term use of glucosamine sulfate gave better results than short-term use of glucosamine hydrochloride. However, just taking glucosamine in this form will not lead to healing. The ideal combination is in line with exercise, diet, physical therapy and taking other supplements.2Glucosamine sulfate. WebMD. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
Glucosamine Hydrochloride for Dogs
This is a form of glucosamine that is the second-most recommended for use in supplementation, not only in joint diseases such as joint pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and hip dysplasia, but also in some eye diseases such as glaucoma. It also gives good results in a condition called temporomandibular disorder (TMD), which is actually a jaw disorder, and for conditions like stroke, heart disease, high levels of cholesterol and lipids (fats) and weight loss.
Glucosamine hydrochloride works by repairing damaged cartilage, facilitating the movement of the dog, and reducing pain and inflammation that occur during the life of your dog. It is recommended for dogs that have difficulty moving, senior dogs, working or sports dogs that experience certain injuries or trauma, and for dogs that develop degenerative and rheumatic changes in the cartilage of the joints. Glucosamine hydrochloride is most often combined with MSM and turmeric, which has an anti-inflammatory effect.
Some products in the US are labeled to contain glucosamine sulfate but are actually glucosamine hydrochloride with sulfate. They will have a different effect in the treatment of the dog from glucosamine sulfate because the effect of the sulfate component from the compound with glucosamine has a greater impact in the treatment of osteoarthritis and helps in the development of cartilage, while the hydrochloride component is based on relieving or eliminating pain and inflammation caused by arthritis. This product is not recommended for use by dogs with allergies to shellfish or crabs, as these may be natural sources used in the preparation of the supplementary product.
Glucosamine MSM for Dogs
Various dietary substances, such as methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), chondroitin sulfate and shark cartilage, are often added to glucosamine. Such combinations are more effective in treatment than in taking glucosamine alone.
As for MSM, it has numerous positive effects on the dog’s body. MSM is popularly called the “beauty mineral”; due to its sulfur content, it is responsible for the production of collagen and keratin. Collagen is important for the revitalization of skin cells and cartilage tissue. It enhances the flexibility of the joint tissue (cartilage, but also the surrounding muscles that support the joint), by preventing it from drying out, constantly encouraging the formation of synovial fluid (the fluid that coats the joint). In this way, it enables the joints not to become rigid and poorly mobile for a long time, which would lead to pain.
In sports and working dogs, it improves energy by increasing the permeability of the cell membrane, where toxins are more easily released. This is exactly why we can say that MSM in combination with glucosamine has an anti-inflammatory effect. This accelerated excretion of harmful metabolic products also causes accelerated digestion, which normally draws 70-80% of energy per day for its work, so that the absorption of nutrients is faster and the dog has an additional energy boost. Sulfur from MSM helps expel body fat and water from the dog’s body, thus reducing body weight.
MSM is produced in the form of capsules and powder. It is most effective to use in the form of a powder where it can be mixed with vitamin C to stimulate the formation of young cells and new tissues. The powder is given to dogs by mixing in water in the amount of 1-3 teaspoons, depending on the severity of your dog’s condition.
Glucosamine Chondroitin for Dogs
Glucosamine and chondroitin alone or in combination used daily lead to a decrease in the main marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein. It is a highly sensitive blood plasma protein that is normally produced in the liver. It is an indicator of acute inflammation in the body and is released from the liver into the bloodstream a few hours after the onset of inflammation.
By lowering the markers of inflammation, glucosamine and chondroitin also reduce the concentration of toxins released during inflammation. By acting as an anti-inflammatory on the joint fluid (synovial fluid), and on the articular cartilage, chondroitin also reduces swelling (edema) of the joints.
If enzymes, which occur in the body during the inflammatory state (proteolytic enzymes), are produced in normal quantities, they play a protective role in preserving cartilage. However, during the hyperproduction of these enzymes, the articular cartilage is destroyed and it decays. The combination of glucosamine and chondroitin allows for cartilage degradation, which is caused by the excessive action of enzymes.
This product can be used in orthopedic preoperative cases where the combined action of chondroitin and glucosamine reduces inflammation of the joints before the injury. Glucosamine chondroitin comes in the form of soft chewable products for easier use by dogs. The price of such products may be a little higher because the sources of these substances are more difficult to find and extract in order to be used for an ideal compound.
Glucosamine Chondroitin Sulfate for Dogs
Glucosamine supplements can very often be found in combination with chondroitin and sulfate. The glucosamine obtained in this combination is extracted from the tissues of shellfish and arthropods (crabs and lobsters).
Chondroitin sulfate is extracted from shark cartilage. Glucosamine sulfate is a very good analgesic (eliminates or reduces pain) and antirheumatic (eliminates or reduces inflammation of the joints). Glucosamine sulfate works in a way to improve joint mobility by preventing cartilage ruptures, which can occur when absorbing a strong blow or movement. Chondroitin works in a similar way.
Glucosamine in combination with chondroitin sulfate has been shown to significantly alleviate the symptoms of arthritis, hip dysplasia, and joint pain caused by friction of rigid parts of the joint. The most important effect of the synergy of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate is to slow down the degeneration of the cartilage of the joint. It is known to be the origin of the pain that occurs during osteoarthritis.
The positive side of supplements made from combining glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate is that they have few or no side effects. They are produced in the form of chewable tablets. However, if this preparation does not give adequate results in the recovery from joint disease, then additional non-surgical methods should be done, such as taking NSAIDs, doing chiropractic and stretching exercises, and doing exercises performed in a pool. These methods are usually included in addition when it comes to chronic pain caused by long-term arthritis.
Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM for Dogs
Glucosamine and chondroitin are components that restore cartilage and restore normal function to the joints, and it has been proven that MSM has the same roles. MSM is a natural component of the body or joints and is rich in sulfur. This sulfur derivative has the role of eliminating or reducing inflammation in the dog’s body and is a natural analgesic (reduces or eliminates pain).
The natural reservoirs of chondroitin in the body are muscles, joints, cartilage, nails, and hair. Supplements containing all three types of these components act on a large proportion of diseases and degenerative changes related to the joints.
Another reason why these are the most used forms of giving glucosamine to dogs is that they contain a number of substances that combine to give the best results, such as MSM, manganese, chondroitin, dried whey, beef liver and magnesium.
The recommended dose for dogs older than 6 weeks is up to two tablets a day, in the morning and evening. The dosage also depends on the weight of the dog. The dosing instructions for the dog’s weight are as follows:
- 1/2 tablet for a dog weighing up to 40 lbs
- 1 tablet for a dog weighing 40 to 80 lbs
- 2 tablets for a dog weighing over 80 lbs
Glucosamine can also be supplemented with turmeric and omega-3 fatty acids, when used in combination with MSM, which improves its absorption in the dog’s body.
Glucosamine Dosage for Dogs
The dosage of glucosamine largely depends on the breed, age, the weight of the dog and his condition. A combination of glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM is most commonly used as a regular dietary supplement, along with omega-3 fatty acids in the form of chews or capsules.
Dosing is also done on the basis of the above criteria, and in terms of dog weight, the capsular doses are the following:
- 1 capsule daily for dogs under 10 lb
- 2 capsules daily (morning and evening) for dogs from 10 – 24 lb
- 2 capsules daily (morning and evening) for dogs from 25 – 49 lb
- 3 capsules daily (two in the morning and one in the evening) for dogs 50 – 100 lb
- 4 capsules daily (two in the morning and two in the evening) for dogs over 100 lb
It is also desirable that the treatment period lasts 4 to 6 weeks. Doses are presented for capsules, but the same applies to tablets. Both of these forms of glucosamine supplements can be given in food, preferably moist in order to mix it in, so that more sensitive dogs can’t feel and possibly refuse to take it. The tablets can be crushed and the capsules divided into food so that the contents are also better absorbed.
However, so as not to bother with crushing tablets and separating capsules, we suggest using chews because dogs typically like them. Chews can also be given in both dry and wet foods and produced as treats that can be given after any meal.
It’s important to know that the dose is determined based on the daily needs of the dog, which is around 20 mg per two pounds of body weight, so this can be a guide for owners in case they are not sure how much glucosamine or chondroitin to give to a dog.
In the case of chronic persistent pain, the dose of the preparation with glucosamine and chondroitin is 3 – 15 mg per two pounds of body weight once a day or every other day. This combination of these supplements is also used to relieve cancer pain. In that case, the dose is 15 – 30 mg per two pounds of body weight once a day, and the recommended duration of treatment is from 4 to 6 weeks.
Glucosamine Chews for Dogs
Glucosamine chews are supplemental treats that are widespread and are in great use today. Owners are happy to buy them because dogs like to chew and eat them. They serve to improve the health of your dog with their ingredients and dietary supplements.
They also have many benefits for the teeth themselves, and they also encourage increased salivation, which occurs during chewing. This allows the dog to digest them very easily and for vital nutrients to reach their absorption at key points. These products are enriched with vitamins, minerals and various flavors that are attractive to dogs. Of the flavors, it is most often chicken, but some other flavors can also be found.
These treats can be made in the form of hard and soft chews. Glucosamine chews are most often made in combination with some other supplements, such as chondroitin, mussels with green eyelids, MSM, manganese and ascorbic acid, and vitamins C, E and K, as well as spices like turmeric.
Glucosamine Powder for Dogs
Glucosamine powder is also very suitable for use in your pet’s diet, especially if mixed with moisture. Glucosamine powder comes in larger packs with measuring cups where doses can be determined very easily. These forms of supplements are also combined with dietary fiber and omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, which are nutrients of plant origin that help digestion.
These products do not contain any flavors, artificial colors or preservatives, because they are mostly made from natural sources of glucosamine. In addition to improving the health of the joints, powdered glucosamine preparations also improve the quality of the skin and hair, giving it shine and vital nutrients. They also raise your pet’s energy level. The recommended dose is indicated on the package, and they are suitable and safe as an addition to the daily diet of all dog breeds.
Glucosamine Tablets for Dogs
Glucosamine tablet preparations are easy to use because the dosing is done piece by piece according to the dog’s weight. Otherwise, in addition to helping to produce the basic components of cartilage tissue, they also prevent its disintegration. Glucosamine tablets may also contain ASU (avocado soybean unsaponifiables). ASUs are vegetable extracts that consist of 2/3 soybean oil and 1/3 avocado oil. These components are important because they have an anti-inflammatory effect, restore connective tissues and prevent the breakdown of cartilage tissue cells.
Glucosamine tablets for dogs have been in clinical use for over 10 years, so they are safe to use. Dosage is performed in the same way as for glucosamine capsules. They are most commonly used in large dogs with over 60 pounds of body weight.
Liquid Glucosamine for Dogs
Liquid glucosamine is ideal for dogs who are picky about their diet because it can be easily poured over their food. In addition to this, it provides the best solution for eliminating stiffness in the joints and pain caused by friction of these very rigid parts during movement, which is also the main symptom of arthritis. That way, liquid glucosamine preserves mobility of joints and prevents the occurrence of hip dysplasia.
Another advantage of the liquid form of glucosamine is that this product is made from completely natural sources, without binders, fillers and gluten, so it is completely safe for your dog. It also contains flavors that are tempting to your dog, like bacon, so it will want to eat it.
Side Effects of Glucosamine in Dogs
Dogs must consume extreme amounts of glucosamine for toxicity to occur. The main side effects that occur are related to allergies to the ingredients from which glucosamine is obtained, such as shellfish. Side effects associated with allergies include the following:
- Excessive thirst and urination (in large doses)
- Problems with digestion and absorption of glucosamine
In addition to these side effects, there may be some related to the use of sugar-based substances in dogs with diabetes. In addition to these side effects, the standard ones that can occur include the following:
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Excess gas
- Bald spots
- Itchy skin
- Constant licking
Your dog can absorb glucosamine from other sources as well, not just dietary supplements. It is possible that some types of dog food contain glucosamine. Therefore, you should follow the instructions contained in glucosamine products; do not exceed the recommended amounts, because glucosamine can be found in other things that the dog consumes, so it can be overused.3Can Glucosamine for Dogs Help Treat Arthritis and Joint Pain?. American Kennel Club. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
Side Effects of Glucosamine Chondroitin in Dogs
As for the side effects that can occur, the risk is very low, because it is very difficult to overdose a dog with glucosamine and chondroitin. Theoretically, only hypersensitivity reactions can occur, which can further complicate the condition.
If an allergic reaction occurs, it further causes a pale to red color, small bumps on the dog’s skin (urticaria) and itching that irritates the dog, so it scratches, causing subcutaneous edema.
In severe cases of glucosamine and chondroitin allergy, nausea, abdominal pain and breathing problems can occur, and in the most severe cases, there can be a drop in blood pressure and movement disorders caused by a disorder of consciousness.4Hoban C., Byard R., Musgrave I. Hypersensitive adverse drug reactions to glucosamine and chondroitin preparations in Australia between 2000 and 2011. Postgraduate Medical Journal 2020;96:190-193.
Dogs that have shown any lifelong hypersensitivity reactions to chondroitin should not consume such preparations. This can happen because chondroitin supplements are obtained from natural sources. Hypersensitivity reactions may manifest as minor gastrointestinal disturbances. As for dogs, they tolerate chondroitin very well. The only risk besides this may be an enormous overdose of glucosamine and chondroitin preparations where liver toxicity may occur in dogs. This can happen with any drug, either alternative or medical, because they all initially pass through the liver and are metabolized there.
Glucosamine MSM Side Effects in Dogs
The side effects that can occur when consuming glucosamine in combination with MSM are very similar to the side effects that normally occur when there is an excessive intake of glucosamine alone. First of all, increased intake of supplements in the dog’s body in addition to regular nutrition can lead to weight gain. Insomnia, an increased urge to drink water and frequent urination due to energy increase may also occur. Some dogs may be allergic to milk or shellfish that may be found in such supplements, so care should be taken to avoid side effects, such as allergic reactions.
Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM Side Effects in Dogs
Dogs generally tolerate glucosamine chondroitin MSM supplements, which are used in the treatment of any form of arthritis. It has not been proven so far that this supplement has caused some side effects because the constituted composition of glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM is the most optimal mix for use in dogs.
Chewable Glucosamine Chondroitin for Dogs
Chewing products are the best form of glucosamine chondroitin for consumption by dogs. By chewing them, dogs produce a lot of saliva, which helps ease digestion and absorption of essential nutrients. They are easy to digest, have a desirable smell and taste, are good for teeth and the dog is very happy to take them.
They are a combination of glucosamine, chondroitin and chitin that can be found in mussels with green eyelids (so-called GLM). This shell is very often used in some of the supplements to revitalize the joints of dogs. It is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants, and it is an excellent source of glycosaminoglycans (long-chain, high-molecular sugar).
All three of these ingredients, together with chondroitin and glucosamine, support the normal functioning of the joints and reduce or completely eliminate the pain caused by friction in cases of arthritis.
Conclusion: Best Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM for Dogs
Various studies have shown that there is no best product on the market for the treatment of hip and joint problems in dogs; glucosamine alone is not the most effective. In fact, combinations of various glucosamine products and its additives, such as glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM are most commonly used and give more visible results.
Additives that are used in this combination give both individual and synergistic positive effects.
A healthy dog can also use glucosamine preparations during life quite normally. Preventive administration of glucosamine in any form is certainly desirable because it is always easier to prevent the development of a disease than to treat it.
Why Buying Glucosamine for Dogs at Costco Is Not a Good Idea?
When shopping at Costco, you can find numerous preparations and brands of all possible dietary supplements for your pet. The market on Costco is very opaque, and as far as supplementary products are concerned, they are not obliged to list all the ingredients in the instructions. As for glucosamine, which is produced in the USA, it is made from natural ingredients, it comes in a package with GMP (good-manufacturing practices) certification, and the regulations according to which it is produced are quite strict. Also, a refund is 100% guaranteed.
We cannot predict exactly what the source of glucosamine is in the products used in the treatment of joint diseases, so we cannot fully claim how safe they are for use. Because of all the above, you would not want your dog to ingest harmful substances instead of good ones. In this segment, it is desirable to trust more of the comments and experiences of other dog owners. What I have noticed so far, and what has proven to be true in practice, is that the dog owners I meet are not very happy with the quality of widely available products. It’s up to you to decide whether to provide your dog with a natural source of glucosamine from which he will have much more benefits than the synthetic version of the same.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Glucosamine for Dogs
Is Glucosamine Good for Dogs?
Glucosamine supplements are good for your dog because they make life easier for dogs who have mobility difficulties due to cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. Providing relief or complete removal of arthritis pain, they also allow the body and joints to absorb vital substances such as vitamins, minerals, and omega fatty acids. The only thing that owners should pay attention to are the already mentioned allergies to the supplement itself or the source of its components. In that case, it can happen that the dog urinates heavily and is often thirsty, and that he has problems with the respiratory system or sleep problems. In this case, it's necessary to seek veterinary advice.
How Much Glucosamine Should You Give a Dog?
It's difficult to exceed the daily dose of glucosamine for dogs. Determining the required dose depends on the weight, age of the dog and the severity of the condition of the dog's joints. The recommended daily doses of glucosamine for dogs are as follows: *For a dog weighing 5-20 pounds, 50-500 mg *For a dog weighing 20 to 45 pounds, 500 mg *For a dog weighing 45 to 90 kilograms, 1000 mg *For a dog weighing more than 90 kilograms, 1500 mg This means on average about 15 mg of glucosamine supplement per two pounds of body weight, as recommended by a veterinarian, once or twice a day.
Can I Use Human Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Dogs?
Technically speaking, you can give human glucosamine to your dog, but the rest of the ingredients in the human joint supplement should be considered. There are large differences between the other ingredients of human glucosamine and that for dogs, as well as digestibility, dosage and composition. For example, human supplements with glucosamine contain a substance called xylitol, which is actually a sweetener. Xylitol is deadly to dogs, while it is used quite normally in the human diet. Chocolate is also to be avoided when it comes to dog nutrition, even as a treat. Also, human supplements are most often produced in the form of pills that are easy to swallow and digest, while in dogs, this is difficult because dogs have a shorter digestive system. This makes it difficult to completely break down the supplement in order to extract all the nutrients and necessary substances from it, so that it leaves the dog's body undegraded and thus unabsorbed, or in other words unused. The situation is the same with tablet human preparations because they are made for humans in a much harder version than for dogs. Tablet supplements for dogs are much softer and more suitable for chewing, and liquid glucosamine preparations can be introduced for pickier dogs. In particular, they allow for rapid degradation and easier absorption of nutrients. Another aggravating and risky circumstance when you want to introduce a human preparation into your pet's dietary supplement is that you do not have the specified dosage for dogs in the instructions. Some human preparations do not need to contain the minerals and amino acids, for example, ascorbic acid is needed to revitalize and relieve joint tissue pain; it is found in dog supplements. Exception in terms of the composition of human and dog supplements is a common supplement that is specially made for canines and which contains glucosamine. It is safe to use for dogs and has no harmful effects on them.
Can a Dog Get Too Much Glucosamine and Chondroitin?
Fortunately, it is difficult to overdo the use of glucosamine and chondroitin when using them in addition to the standard daily diet of dogs. The amount and dose of glucosamine and chondroitin that would work best in dog food supplements is determined based on the dog's weight and the condition of the dog's joints. Detailed information on the optimal amount of glucosamine can be found in the 'Glucosamine Dosage for Dogs' section.
|↑1||J. Henriques. The Best Sources of Glucosamine for Dogs. Dogs Naturally Magazine. Retrieved 2 August 2020.|
|↑2||Glucosamine sulfate. WebMD. Retrieved 2 August 2020.|
|↑3||Can Glucosamine for Dogs Help Treat Arthritis and Joint Pain?. American Kennel Club. Retrieved 4 August 2020.|
|↑4||Hoban C., Byard R., Musgrave I. Hypersensitive adverse drug reactions to glucosamine and chondroitin preparations in Australia between 2000 and 2011. Postgraduate Medical Journal 2020;96:190-193.|